News

Oct 01

Micro Drilling for the Structural Assessment of Timber.  

What is Micro Drilling?

Micro drilling is a non-destructive timber investigation technique allowing the structural assessment of timbers and areas that can be hidden or obstructed by decorative finishes or plasterwork and can allow for cost effective care and repair of buildings without the loss of building fabric, which is extremely important when dealing with period or buildings of historic interest.

The Micro Drill cuts a fine 1mm probe into the timber to be investigated and through measuring the speed of penetration, records variations and defects in the timber caused by insect attack, fungal decay or other defects to a computer or field printer, allowing accurate assessment of the timber without the need for full destructive opening up.

The video below  shows Paul Carter putting the Micro Drill through its paces….

 

This system of non-destructive timber investigation is of benefit when trying to assess the condition of built in timbers such as truss ends, bearer beams and lintels etc. and can also be used for large dimension joinery timbers. The system can be of great value to Architects, Engineers and Surveyors when proposing conversion, refurbishment and repair schemes of period and historic buildings as it allows minimal interference and the ability to provide conservation approaches to the repair strategy.

To arrange a timber survey through Premier Heritage click here or call 0800 0 199 211

Sep 28

A recent inspection of a 1930’s mid terraced house in Wiltshire exposed a farcical series of events due to the incompetence of the Chartered Surveyor undertaking the Home Buyers Survey and also the damp proofing specialist who (on the recommendation of the Surveyor) followed him.

This traditional cavity brick built, mid-terraced house was subjected to a Home Buyers Survey, which identified dampness within the front living room and rear dining room walls, as a consequence of which recommendations where made to instruct a Specialist Damp Proofing Co to undertake a full survey (standard recommendation) and carry out any remedial works.

After an investigation by a local damp proofing company, rising damp was identified and recommendations put forward for a chemical injection damp proof course and re-plastering to the value of £1800 + Vat.

No visual evidence of dampness to the front bay window

No visual evidence of dampness to the front bay window

 
Apparently happy with this quote, the prospective purchaser’s builder expressed his concerns with the diagnosis, as the property had (what appeared to be) a perfectly good slate damp proof course (as was installed at the time of construction) visible to both the front bay and rear dining room external facing walls.

A second opinion was sought and Premier Heritage were invited to undertake a survey of the property for Structural Dampness which found the following;-

  •  No obvious external defects or sources of moisture
  • No apparent internal decorative spoiling (other than badly applied wall paper)
  • No obvious plaster deterioration
  • No surface mould growth
  • No significant levels of moisture within the skirtings or adjacent timbers
  • However, high and consistent damp readings to ceiling height on both walls.

Question………What type of dampness would cause this?

Answer……….  The Metal foil backed paper type of dampness. 

Lifting the wall paper expose’s the metal foil paper responsible for the damp readings!

Lifting the wall paper expose’s the metal foil paper responsible for the damp readings!

Wrong Diagnosis

The damp problem had been incorrectly diagnosed, as it was metal foil paper (under the wallpaper) that was interfering with the damp meter, causing it to give the readings. The user should however (if he had known what he was doing) been ‘put on notice’ to the fact that the readings were consistent throughout the walls height (unusual) and that there was no obvious spoiling of decorations / plasterwork etc.

This should have at the very least, made him suspicious and he should have looked beyond the damp meter readings. More importantly is the fact that the property had a fully effective physical damp proof course.

The Outcome

The survey and investigation of dampness in an occupied house can sometimes be restricted as destructive investigation cannot always be carried out or approved. The misdiagnosis of dampness in buildings generally results from the misuse of the ‘moisture meter’ as in this case, but one should not rely on the moisture meter alone and should depend on the surveyors experience, eyes and common sense, all of which will tell him far more than the moisture meter alone. But such instruments are there to support and aid in the diagnosis of dampness (if used correctly) and as such their importance should not be overlooked.

We were somewhat surprised that the Chartered Surveyor had failed to identify the problem and far too quickly ‘passed the buck’ to the damp proofing company. We were however not too surprised with the damp-proofing surveyors findings as he was not only inexperienced, but also held no formal qualifications in damp surveying.

The foil backed paper had been applied to the walls due to the colonisation of mould during the winter months, the mould clearly a symptom of a seasonal condensation.

The foil paper, marketed as an aid to ‘damp control’, was naively applied by the Vendor in an innocent attempt to eradicate the mould, which clearly was never going to happen.

Premier Heritage identified that no structural dampness existed within this property and therefore no works were needed. Following the removal of the foil backed paper and redecoration they all lived happily ever after, apart from the surveyor and the damp-company who were asked to  contribute towards Premier Heritages costs, which could have been avoided had they looked beyond the end of their noses!

Sep 17
In early August Premier received instructions to undertake a timber condition survey of the signal box located at Ryde St John Station on the Isle of Wight.

The station, which opened in August 1864, was the Isle of Wight railway’s northern terminus, (one of three stations in Ryde), before being expanded in 1866 to accommodate the opening of the new Ventnor to Shanklin line.

Ryde St John Signal Box

Ryde St John Signal Box

The islands railway now boasts an annual passenger usage of around 170,000, being the only commercial public transport railway line on the island and relied on by many local residents for access to other parts of the island.

The timber framed, two storey signal box originally located at London Waterloo East, was dismantled in 1926, timbers numbered and moved piece by piece to be re-erected at its present location. This is the only operational signal box on the Isle of Wight line today and hence it has become known as the ‘Island Line Signalling Centre’!

No fancy computerised systems here! All hand operated by an experienced Signalman

No fancy computerised systems here! All hand operated by an experienced Signalman

Premier’s brief was to undertake a detailed investigation of the main structural supporting timbers and to prepare a specification of repair and preservation to allow for the continued use of the Signal Box well into the 21st century.

The main soft wood timber frame which sits on a concrete ringed foundation suffers from wet rot fungal decay and general deterioration, in part due to general weathering and the lack of routine maintenance, but also as a consequence of past flooding that affected the track and station buildings in the early and late 1990’s. Investigation of the timbers included the use of conventional survey techniques and moisture measurement, but also Micro Drilling using the Sibtec Digital Probe to determine the integral condition of the main wall plates, cill beams and large corner posts.

Significant wet rot fungal decay affecting the large corner posts  and cill beams

Significant wet rot fungal decay affecting the large corner posts and cill beams

Wet rot decay affects the internal wall plates

Wet rot decay affects the internal wall plates

Wet rot fungal decay affects the joists to the canter levered jetty on the southern elevation

Wet rot fungal decay affects the joists to the canter levered jetty on the southern elevation

Sep 04

When the owners of a farm house suffering with damp problems needed a damp proofing solution Premier Heritage were on hand to assist with a traditional solution to damp.

This detached, stone built former Devon Farmhouse was refurbished by its previous owners in the 1970’s and unfortunately like many properties of this age was stripped of much of its original fabric, including its lime plasterwork, renders and pointing mortar.

Farmhouse prior to damp proofing taking place

Farmhouse prior to traditional form of damp proofing taking place

In early 2008 Premier Heritage received instructions from its new owners to undertake a full survey of the property for dampness and associated defects and to put forward a specification for remedial works to deal with the dampness present and any associated defects.

Drying out the dampness in the property

Drying out the dampness in the property

The main areas of concern identified by our investigation confirmed the presence of rising and penetrating dampness affecting various walls, although the latter mainly affecting the weather prevailing elevations and most noticeably the front sitting room, rear drawing room and stair area. No structural dampness was identified at first floor level.

As a consequence of the longstanding dampness to the lower sections of the south and western walls, several timber lintels were also showing signs of decay (some having already been replaced) and also death watch beetle activity.

Lintels showing signs of death watch beetle activity and fungal decay

Lintels showing signs of death watch beetle activity and fungal decay

The structural timbers supporting the half landing were also affected by wet rot where bearing into the wall as were numerous skirting and window boards.

To the western wall there was also the added complication of raised external ground levels sloping towards the house and also an obvious, insufficient overhang of the thatched roofing, increasing moisture at ground level and within the walls.

Replaced timbers

Replaced timbers

It was established that the conditions affecting this property had resulted as a consequence of the building’s past refurbishment and the removal of the original permeable mortars and renders used in the buildings original construction (i.e. the lime plaster, bedding and pointing mortar etc). Subsequent replacement with modern cement, being less permeable has resulted in dampness becoming trapped within the fabric of the wall ‘due to its inability to breathe’. This problem has built up over many years being further compounded by the numerous layers of masonry paint applied to the walls over the past 30 years or so!

Premier Heritage’s specification for remedial works concentrated on the removal of the cement materials (both inside and out) to allow the walls to dry down, along with subsequent repairs to structural and joinery timbers. The main contractor was appointed and the works were project managed by Premier Heritage.

The first task was to remove the external paintwork and cement pointing which was impermeable and trapping moisture / dampness within the wall’s, increasing the levels of dampness and internal damage to the building’s fabric. Having removed all external coatings and cement mortar (including that to the interior of the sitting room) the walls started to dry down.

New oak lintels were introduced, where existing were structurally unsound and timber repairs were completed to the interior staircase and landing etc.

Ground levels to the western wall were also reduced, with improved drainage and a vertical slate barrier fitted to the lower sections of the wall to minimise damp penetration.

Following the drying period re-pointing commenced to the exposed stone walls and this was undertaken using a lime based (permeable / breathable) mortar, after which the building was re-thatched and finally redecorated throughout.

The building has now been restored to its former condition and is dry and comfortable as well as looking great!

The finished farmhouse free of damp

The finished farmhouse free of damp

Aug 28

This 1976 brick built Dorset bungalow retained blown fibre insulation introduced in the late 1990’s.

Wall showing rain penetration

Wall showing rain penetration

Rain penetration penetrated the outer masonry and bridged the cavity causing internal decorative spoling and decay to skirting boards. Moisture entrapped within the cavity wall is clearly visible at DPC level externally and is aggravated by very hard impermeable motar.
Saturated perp end joint

Saturated perp end joint

The seriousness of this particular problem became apparent when drilling the perp end joints which were saturated.
Saturated motar between the brick work

Saturated motar between the brick work

Saturated mortar from between the brickwork.
Moisture squeezed from the insulation material

Moisture squeezed from the insulation material

Moisture squeezed from a sample of the insulation material removed.
Remedial costs to remove the insulation and make good, excluding internal repairs and redecoration, was in excess of £2000 plus VAT
Aug 28

Cavity Wall Insulation
(What are the benefits? …..…..DAMP)

From October 2008 all domestic buildings (being built, rented or sold) were required ‘by Law’ to have an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) to help improve the energy efficiency of the building. The EPC provides an ‘A’ to ‘G’ rating for the building, ‘A’ being the most efficient and ‘G’ the least and to-date a ‘D’ rating is currently being banded as the average.

It is claimed that around a third of heat loss in a house is through its roof and walls and currently there is a government drive (supported by television advertising and the offer of Home Improvement Insulation Grants) to encourage home owners to increase loft insulation and also to fit cavity wall insulation, as it is claimed this can save on average around £180 per annum on heating costs!

However were you aware that by installing cavity wall insulation, whilst you may well be saving some money on fuel costs, you could also be creating a major expense for the future……..damp!

Example of cavity wall insulation

Example of cavity wall insulation

The cavity wall (as we know it) dates back to the early 1900’s and is commonly found in the coastal areas around Britain, used to reduce the risk of rain penetration. In the 1920’s, local building by-laws encouraged the construction of the cavity wall and by the 1940’s it had become the Industry Standard. The familiar cavity wall (as we know it) is two leaves of brickwork, forming a 60mm cavity and tied together with metal wall ties.

Even back in the good old 1970’s concerns were being expressed over Energy Conservation and home owners were then being encouraged to introduce loft insulation and it wasn’t long after that cavity wall insulation was also being recommended.

Fill your cavities with foam, polystyrene, mineral wool or any other material you can introduce through a small hole in the wall and you will save energy and loads of money. Sounds good, but what if by introducing this insulation you increased the risk of damp to your property, which in turn would cause internal decorative spoiling, plaster damage, fungal decay to  structural and joinery timbers and also accelerate the risk of corrosion to the metal wall ties.

Could that really happen? Well the answer is yes and it is.

Paul Carter, the principal of Premier Heritage, has investigated hundreds of buildings over the past 20 years of so, where damp has affected internal decorations etc and found that the damp present was due to bridging of the cavity by the earlier installed insulation materials. Whilst some of these cases were wrongly diagnosed by others as rising damp, most of these buildings (if not all) retained a physical damp proof course, the newest being a 1980’s brick built bungalow in Hampshire.

Ok, lets put this into perspective, there have been thousands of cavity built houses within the UK that have been insulated and a good majority of these don’t currently have nor will ever have a problem with damp. But there are a great number that have and no doubt more will be affected in the years to come! 

Increased rainfall in past years has resulted in a noticeable increase in damp problems affecting conventional cavity-constructed housing, due to moisture penetrating / bridging the cavities and in particular on the weather prevailing elevations and this isn’t a problem relating to current rainfall, but a gradual build of damp over many years.

Rainwater driving into the masonry of a building can penetrate the outer leaf brickwork leading to the wetting of the insulation materials, increased damp penetration and a reduced thermal performance of the material. Poor construction methods, mortar and perp joints, debris within the cavities, dirty wall ties and poor installation procedures by installers all contribute to the overall problem, which generally will result in the need to remove the insulation, which is not only expensive, but will almost certainly cosmetically scar the building when finished. Unfortunately it doesn’t come out through the same hole through which it went in!

So how do you avoid this problem? Well there’s no easy answer to this other than to look carefully at the building’s construction (porosity of building materials) and its exposure to the prevailing weather conditions. If having then decided to proceed, ensure that the chosen contractor / installer, during the survey, checks the cavities  and cavity trays for debris and dirty wall ties, but more importantly offers a system and material that guarantees (preferably insurance backed) that the materials being installed will not transmit / bridge moisture through and into the internal wall!

Alternatively, if you’re still unsure then don’t install.

Examples of Cavity Wall Insulation causing damp:

Cavity Foam Insulation

Cavity Foam Insulation

1970’s block constructed bugalow with poorly installed cavity foam insulation and debris bridging moisture via wall ties, cost around £800 to remove and rectify internal damage caused.

Polystyrene bead cavity insulation

Polystyrene bead cavity insulation

1930’s brick constructed house with polystyrene bead cavity wall insulation. Caused extensive damp to rear elevation walls, cost in excess of £3,000 to remove insulation and rectify internal damage.Polystyrene bead cavity insulation
Polystyrene bead cavity insulation

Polystyrene bead cavity insulation 2

1920’s brick constructed house, south facing elevation with polystyrene bead insulation and poor quality mortar. Caused extensive damp to internal decorations and accelerated corrosion of wall ties (rusting ends just visable), cost in excess of £3,500 to remove insulation and install new wall ties.
Aug 24

Damp and fungal decay survey at historic mill 

Premier Heritage are pleased to have been appointed to undertake Timber and Damp surveys of the former Tonedale Textiles Mill in Wellington, Somerset.

Tonedale Mill was established in 1790 by the Fox family and was, for many years, the largest integrated woollen mill in the South West employing around 2000 local residents. The original site extended to approximately 12.6 acres and provided a range of stone and brick built Grade II and Grade II* Listed buildings.

Tonedale Mill

Tonedale Mill

The Mill is of particular historic significance as it retains a full complement of buildings representing the complete manufacturing process, from processing the raw wool through to yarn spinning and the preparation of woollen and worsted cloths. During the Boer War the Tonedale dyers also developed the dye ‘khaki’ leading to the end of British soldiers’ “redcoats”.

Evidence also remains of the development of different forms of power generation: from the early water powered mill, to the steam powered mills and finally to the electrical generating complex in the centre of the site. The mills also had specialist buildings for the manufacture of metal and timber components for both buildings and machinery maintenance.

The property now benefits from detailed planning permission and listed building consent and Hydon ( www.hydon.co.uk )and their joint venture partner, Kenmore Homes, are developing in excess of 150 residential units and also commercial space, combining some minor new build with a sensitive conversion of the existing buildings, maintaining much of the original internal fabric.

As with many sites of this type, it has fallen into a state of disrepair and various buildings are now affected by significant damp ingress and varying forms of fungal decay, including dry rot.

Premier Heritage have been employed to initially undertake the timber and damp condition reports on the various stone and brick built buildings, which will include the inspection of over 800 original windows, all of which are to be completely renovated.

Aug 24
Wood wasp feeding on timber

Wood wasp feeding on timber

Although not strictly speaking a Heritage Survey, whilst undertaking a recent survey of a Edwardian house in Sussex, we were asked by our clients neighbour if we could take a quick look at and advise on a particular problem affecting her timber framed Conservatory.

 The conservatory which was situated on the side of a 1950’s bungalow was constructed in soft wood, although was not of particularly good quality or was it well constructed. Wet rot decay (white rot) was occurring to the lower frames and cills as a consequence of condensation running from the internal faces of the glass during the winter and soaking the timber. A 10 year guarantee was originally provided by the installer (a franchise conservatory company), although they had long since ceased trading.

Nothing unusual about that you might think, but the owner also pointed out that insect’s, described as ‘wasp like’ were also burrowing into the timbers.

The wasp in question, although not your normal Wood Wasp, was chewing quite happily through the apparently sound paintwork and

timber and within a matter of minutes (and long enough to take his photo) was up to his head and shoulders and well into the softwood frame.

Damage caused by wood wasp

Damage caused by wood wasp

After several attempts and about 15 minutes chasing the insect around the garden, it was finally caught and identified, as what was believed to be a Wasp of the genus specie ‘Ectemnius’. This is a Wasp that lay their eggs on paralysed flies, which they then store in burrows made in rotting timber, hence its interest in this rotting softwood conservatory.

We advised the owner of the conservatory that in our opinion the frames of the conservatory were considered to be beyond economical repair and removing the decayed timbers would remove the risk of further infestation by the wasps. Recommendations were made to have the frames fully replaced with a more durable timber, with suitable treatment and decoration.

  To learn more about wood wasps click here Below is a short video showing a wood wasp in action!

Jul 15

Premier Heritage invest in the latest technology for non destructive timber surveys

Micro Drilling for the Structural Assessment of Timber

Many if not all period buildings retain large structural roof and floor timbers, which are vulnerable to moisture penetration, which if undetected can lead to wet /dry rot fungal decay and insect attack, resulting in their structural failure and considerable repair costs. Whilst these defects can sometimes be obvious, where timbers are built into large dimension walls (such as truss ends, bearers etc) deterioration can some times go un-noticed until the inevitable occurs.

non destructive timber survey with a micro drill

non destructive timber survey with a micro drill

What is Micro Drilling?

Micro drilling is a non-destructive investigation technique allowing the structural assessment of timbers and areas that can be hidden or obstructed by decorative finishes or plasterwork and can allow for cost effective care and repair of buildings without the loss of building fabric, which is extremely important when dealing with period or buildings of historic interest.

The Micro Drill cuts a fine 1mm probe into the timber to be investigated and through measuring the speed of penetration, records variations and defects in the timber caused by insect attack, fungal decay or other defects to a computer or field printer, allowing accurate assessment of the timber without the need for full destructive opening up.

This system of non-destructive investigation is of benefit when trying to assess the condition of built in timbers such as truss ends, bearer beams and lintels etc. and can also be used for large dimension joinery timbers. The system can be of great value to Architects, Engineers and Surveyors when proposing conversion, refurbishment and repair schemes of period and historic buildings as it allows minimal interference and the ability to provide conservation approaches to the repair strategy.

To arrange a non destructive timber survey call 0800 0 199 211 or click here to book a survey on-line.

Jun 24

 

woodworm323456Debate has raged about the scale of the woodworm problem and whether central heating controls it for many years.

Now the matter can finally be settled by the publication of actual data collated by Paul Carter CTIS CRDS A. Inst. MBM of Premier Heritage.

Claims that woodworm is effectively no longer a problem and that central heating controls woodworm are now demolished. It is now clear that woodworm remains a widespread threat to the nation’s homes and architectural heritage. It is also clear that woodworm is not controlled by central heating – and there is even the prospect that central heating actually makes the problem worse.

Active woodworm in a loft

Active woodworm in a loft

The Truth about Woodworm Study:

The Media report that the use of central heating creates conditions unsuitable for the survival of woodworm in housing appeared with increasing frequency in the early part of the decade. It was further suggested that as a consequence the incidence of woodworm activity in houses had become rare.
No data or other scientific works were advanced to support the postulations, which on the one hand gained apparent credibility by repetition but on the other were dismissed as being  counter-intuitive and unsupported by anecdotal evidence.
Investigations and data collations were conducted by Premier Heritage, with the purpose of 1, establishing whether or not data supported the hypotheses propounded in the media and 2, if they were, supported to investigate whether central heating could be employed as an active medium for the eradication  of woodworm infestations in houses.
The findings are contained below: 

 

Methodology

‘Woodworm’ can mean any wood-boring beetle, but is generally used to refer to the Common Furniture Beetle (Anobium punctatum).
Surveys of properties were conducted in 2001 and preliminary findings published. Further surveys were conducted in 2002, 2003, (resources were not available in 2004) and 2005. 

Damage caused by woodworm

Damage caused by woodworm

The beetle activity was denoted by the presence of new emergence holes and insect frass.
In 2001, 2002 and 2003, each property was the subject of examination of roof and ground floor timbers. Not all ground floor timbers were available for monitoring. In 2005 only roof voids were investigated.

Where properties had central heating systems, they had been installed for over 20 years and the effects of such heating would have been well established. Surveys were carried out when heating systems would have been in full use.
Further data recorded included the relative humidity in the roof voids and moisture content of the timbers.

Discussion

  • Timber is hygroscopic, which means its standing air-dry moisture content varies with changes in the surrounding humidity – as the humidity goes up so does the moisture content of the timber, and humidity is partially governed by the external environment and will vary substantially throughout the year.
  • In the substantial majority, roof and floor timbers had moisture contents in excess of 12% despite the influence of central heating.
  • Wood does not have a ‘static’ moisture content and the moisture level will vary considerably throughout the year, with or without central heating.
  • The majority of properties investigated were in the course of pre-purchase surveys. Of 204 houses inspected, 145 were suffering active wood-boring beetle infestations (71%). Within this, 118 out of 153 centrally heated houses (77%) were affected, while 27 out of 51 without central heating (53%) were affected.

Conclusions

  • There is no evidence that the use of central heating creates conditions unsuitable for the survival of woodworm in houses.
  • Central heating cannot be employed as an active medium for the eradication of woodworm in houses.
  • The moisture readings obtained in the timbers of centrally heated houses suggest that central heating may actually increase moisture levels in timber.
  • The incidence of woodworm remains widespread.
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