A blog post

Cavity Wall Insulation – what are the benefits?

Posted on the 28 August, 2009 at 2:54 pm Written by in Case Studies, Cavity Walls, Damp

Cavity Wall Insulation
(What are the benefits? …..…..DAMP)

From October 2008 all domestic buildings (being built, rented or sold) were required ‘by Law’ to have an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) to help improve the energy efficiency of the building. The EPC provides an ‘A’ to ‘G’ rating for the building, ‘A’ being the most efficient and ‘G’ the least and to-date a ‘D’ rating is currently being banded as the average.

It is claimed that around a third of heat loss in a house is through its roof and walls and currently there is a government drive (supported by television advertising and the offer of Home Improvement Insulation Grants) to encourage home owners to increase loft insulation and also to fit cavity wall insulation, as it is claimed this can save on average around £180 per annum on heating costs!

However were you aware that by installing cavity wall insulation, whilst you may well be saving some money on fuel costs, you could also be creating a major expense for the future……..damp!

Example of cavity wall insulation

Example of cavity wall insulation

The cavity wall (as we know it) dates back to the early 1900’s and is commonly found in the coastal areas around Britain, used to reduce the risk of rain penetration. In the 1920’s, local building by-laws encouraged the construction of the cavity wall and by the 1940’s it had become the Industry Standard. The familiar cavity wall (as we know it) is two leaves of brickwork, forming a 60mm cavity and tied together with metal wall ties.

Even back in the good old 1970’s concerns were being expressed over Energy Conservation and home owners were then being encouraged to introduce loft insulation and it wasn’t long after that cavity wall insulation was also being recommended.

Fill your cavities with foam, polystyrene, mineral wool or any other material you can introduce through a small hole in the wall and you will save energy and loads of money. Sounds good, but what if by introducing this insulation you increased the risk of damp to your property, which in turn would cause internal decorative spoiling, plaster damage, fungal decay to  structural and joinery timbers and also accelerate the risk of corrosion to the metal wall ties.

Could that really happen? Well the answer is yes and it is.

Paul Carter, the principal of Premier Heritage, has investigated hundreds of buildings over the past 20 years of so, where damp has affected internal decorations etc and found that the damp present was due to bridging of the cavity by the earlier installed insulation materials. Whilst some of these cases were wrongly diagnosed by others as rising damp, most of these buildings (if not all) retained a physical damp proof course, the newest being a 1980’s brick built bungalow in Hampshire.

Ok, lets put this into perspective, there have been thousands of cavity built houses within the UK that have been insulated and a good majority of these don’t currently have nor will ever have a problem with damp. But there are a great number that have and no doubt more will be affected in the years to come! 

Increased rainfall in past years has resulted in a noticeable increase in damp problems affecting conventional cavity-constructed housing, due to moisture penetrating / bridging the cavities and in particular on the weather prevailing elevations and this isn’t a problem relating to current rainfall, but a gradual build of damp over many years.

Rainwater driving into the masonry of a building can penetrate the outer leaf brickwork leading to the wetting of the insulation materials, increased damp penetration and a reduced thermal performance of the material. Poor construction methods, mortar and perp joints, debris within the cavities, dirty wall ties and poor installation procedures by installers all contribute to the overall problem, which generally will result in the need to remove the insulation, which is not only expensive, but will almost certainly cosmetically scar the building when finished. Unfortunately it doesn’t come out through the same hole through which it went in!

So how do you avoid this problem? Well there’s no easy answer to this other than to look carefully at the building’s construction (porosity of building materials) and its exposure to the prevailing weather conditions. If having then decided to proceed, ensure that the chosen contractor / installer, during the survey, checks the cavities  and cavity trays for debris and dirty wall ties, but more importantly offers a system and material that guarantees (preferably insurance backed) that the materials being installed will not transmit / bridge moisture through and into the internal wall!

Alternatively, if you’re still unsure then don’t install.

Examples of Cavity Wall Insulation causing damp:

Cavity Foam Insulation

Cavity Foam Insulation

1970′s block constructed bugalow with poorly installed cavity foam insulation and debris bridging moisture via wall ties, cost around £800 to remove and rectify internal damage caused.

Polystyrene bead cavity insulation

Polystyrene bead cavity insulation

1930′s brick constructed house with polystyrene bead cavity wall insulation. Caused extensive damp to rear elevation walls, cost in excess of £3,000 to remove insulation and rectify internal damage.Polystyrene bead cavity insulation
Polystyrene bead cavity insulation

Polystyrene bead cavity insulation 2

1920′s brick constructed house, south facing elevation with polystyrene bead insulation and poor quality mortar. Caused extensive damp to internal decorations and accelerated corrosion of wall ties (rusting ends just visable), cost in excess of £3,500 to remove insulation and install new wall ties.

some comments

There are currently 80 of them
  1. Dave 29 July 2012 at 6:10 pm permalink

    Anita Pandolfo..
    I had a similar problem and sealed the external walls. Unfortunately it made the problem worse, as the bricks could no longer ‘breathe’ to allow moisture in the cavity to escape.

  2. kal 7 August 2012 at 8:57 pm permalink

    Hi you have to make sure that by sealed the external walls you ave to use a sealer that allows the wall to breath but is also waterproof never use pva. That seals and does not let the wall breath. My opinion would be do not get cavity wall insulation if it goes wrong it costs a lot to repair as i have had major probs. You could concider external insulation it’s more expensive but most council houses are getting this type done. The cavity is left intact with foam boards attached outside and then placterd and renderd over.

  3. kal 7 August 2012 at 9:16 pm permalink

    Example of external wall cavity

    http://www.woking.gov.uk/planning/building/guidance/externalwalls

    Must look at this if your considering cavity wall

    http://conversation.which.co.uk/energy-home/cavity-wall-insulation-companies-can-we-rely-on-their-advice/

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/x-ray/2011/12/off-the-mark.shtml

    AS above i would avoid mark group

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/x-ray/2010/03/xray-investigates-cavity-wall.shtml

    Have a look at this link map of areas not suitable for cavity wall well you be the judge this is just my opinion.

    http://www.which.co.uk/energy/saving-money/guides/how-to-buy-wall-insulation/cavity-wall-insulation-damp-problems/

  4. ian 4 November 2012 at 9:37 pm permalink

    had cavity walls done 2007 had nothing but trouble since damp spots all over internal walls upstairs and down and condensation that is running off the window sills and walls and no warmth benifit that we can see

  5. Anthony Whelan 27 December 2012 at 2:27 pm permalink

    I have had a1960s bungalow insulated through injection of polystyrene beading in the block-built cavity walls. Since then, I have not noticed any visible signs of damp (condensation, black mouldy zones, etc.), but there is a strong musty smell in a number of rooms. The floors are of wooden boards, there are ventilation vents at ground level (i.e. under the level of the boards), and there are enough chinks between the boards to let some air pass. I’m beginning to think that I should also insert vents higher in the ŵalls to enhance air circulation. What do you think?
    Thanks, Anthony

  6. Julian 5 January 2013 at 3:19 pm permalink

    My neighbour had his walls filled with foam. Then his house went completely damp and so did ours (sodden) he then blamed it on me, showing me his rotten woodwork. I had nothing to do with his damp that he caused yet he again knocked on my door and blamed me again. I told him you should NOT put foam in the walls of an old house (1930 built). NOw we have to put up with months of this idiot scraping /drilling and tapping on the walls to get this crap back out, whilst we all work on NIGHT shifts for NHS! You couldnt make it up. I should sue HIM and claim for the damage but we just dont want the trouble.

  7. S S Hall 10 April 2013 at 11:37 am permalink

    I had cavity wall insulation fitted some years ago on the understanding it would keep the house warm without any side effects.Not so, in the cold the windows condensate,previously they never did.The reveals are now damp the wallpaper peels off black mould has appeared. I have complained to the company that carried out the insulation, they suggested leaving the top opening window slightly ajar to give some air circulation. however this would leave the house insecure as well as defeating the object of draught proofing.
    I wish I had never had this work carried out, it has ruined the decorating in every room in the house.When I asked the contractor if they had any other similar complaints they confirmed they had but not many and that they had seen a lot worsr than mine.I suggested that they should warn people as to what might happen prior to having this work carried out I am desperate to have my house back to how it used to be and would be happy to put up with slightly higher gas bills than be left in the situation I am now in, and with no prospects of the contractor being willing to do anything to resolve these issues. I would be grateful for any suggestions on how these problems can be resolved

  8. Claire Eades 2 March 2014 at 7:56 pm permalink

    My parents had CWI installed by the Mark Group about four years ago. Their house is now ruined. They have never had a damp problem before. I will not let this rest until justice has been done for them and other house holders like them. This is a Govt initiative causing wide spread misery.

  9. Mike Lamacq 4 March 2014 at 4:50 pm permalink

    Re the comments by Claire Eades March 2, 2014. We have also suffered from this problem. It will cost approximately £3500 to fix INTERNAL damage, insurance company do not want to know the causes (cavity wall infilled by Warm Front – under the auspices of the Gov) so we are left to sort out the problems on our own. Quote to rectify the outside wall problem in the region of £5000. This will involve cladding the walls with cement/fibre boards fixed to battens. Have seen various reports of similar problems but nobody wants to know.Would be interested in any helpful comments.

  10. Adrian monk -steel 28 March 2014 at 12:34 pm permalink

    Hello , just read the comments ,we are being pestered to have this done, my wife won’t believe me when I say that our house won’t be able to breathe ,she thinks I’m mad !there’s a gap between the inner and outer wall for a reason , to let the house breathe and keep the moisture/damp from getting through to the inner wall, and keeping the inside of the house dry and free of damp too don’t be fooled do your homework first, don’t just believe what you read I don’t want to make the mistake and find out that it’s to late to go back!

  11. Claire Eades 5 April 2014 at 7:11 pm permalink

    The Mark Group have caused 10000 worth of damage to my parents’ house. CIGA admit that it wasn’t installed to BBA standards yet no one takes responsibility to remove it. My parents are in their 70s. I have had a direct email from Ed Davey’s office stating that no Govt money is involved yet my parent’s were told that the Govt was funding it by a Mark Group sales person. This is on their website.

    Funding
    Cavity Wall Insulation prices vary depending on the property but, thanks to government funding schemes such as ECO, you may qualify for a Cavity Wall Insulation grant to help you with the cost of insulating your home. For more information of funding for Cavity Wall Insulation, please check out our Frequently Asked Questions.
    Find out if you qualify by using our free online funding tool now.

    I have copied this to Ed Davey but guess what? NO RESPONSE

    Sent from my iPad

  12. Claire Eades 5 April 2014 at 7:20 pm permalink

    Mike I have set up. Cavity wall insulation causes damp problems page. You are welcome to join it. I have also read reports and have discovered that the energy companies are responsible for quality assurance. They follow up only 5% and of that they admit to a 14-17% failure rate. However I have also read criticism that CIGA is not independent as it is funded by the installers. Ofgem are aware that the quality assurance process is not rigorous. Jeffrey Howell of the Sunday Telegraph is behind us but pretty much a lone voice. He says that people like me start to raise the issue but once our own problem is sorted we drop it. If we network we can raise the profile of this.

  13. Claire Eades 5 April 2014 at 7:22 pm permalink

    Everyone Email Ed Davey the environment secretary . Don’t let it rest.

  14. Nikki 14 April 2014 at 10:06 pm permalink

    We have been seeing damp problems too since CWI and loft insulation in out victorian/edwardian terrace. This is obviously a serious issue for many people.

    I know the drive for this ‘insulation’ is about energy use reduction in order to mitigate carbon emissions, but clearly there are unforeseen side effects of the methods.

    New and properly tested methods of reducing energy consumption is needed.

  15. LN 19 April 2014 at 9:37 pm permalink

    The whole idea of ‘sealing in the energy’ is madness. houses need ventilation, and when one installs any kind of boiler, fire, stove one must now drill holes in doors and walls to provide this because windows etc are almost airtight. It’s most unhealthy and all the insulation is a big scam. When we had our water tanks unlagged they helped keep the house warm, the heat wasn’t really ‘lost’. Now I have friends who insulated the loft so well that all their header tank and pipes froze and burst in the freezing loft, huge expense for little if any benefit.

  16. Debby Jones 4 May 2014 at 5:37 pm permalink

    We have just had our cavity wall insulation removed by British Gas after we complained to CIGA. We were baffled as to why the rear of our house was damp. We spend thousands having new windows installed, roof repairs and finally having the back of the house re-rendered. We had one of our internal rooms re-plastered only to discover perfect damp circles appearing on the walls and semi circles appearing near the floor. British Gas said this was caused by the material used to fill the cavity (rock wool). Rain was driving through the rendering, soaking the rock wool which in turn was soaking the walls. We wish we had never had it in the first place, it has caused us so many problems and expense.

  17. Graeme 8 May 2014 at 2:28 pm permalink

    All, firstly many thanks for your posts on here.

    There’s guys currently installing for free white mineral wool on our street at the moment in Halifax,UK – but after researching it and reading this blog I’ve decided not to have any installed. I’m sure it may work fine in many cases however the ones that don’t sound to need a very expensive solution to try and fix. The idea does sound mad to me, we do after all as an earlier comment mentions have that gap for a reason.

  18. Colin Hill 26 June 2014 at 9:19 pm permalink

    Have just come across this thread so hope it is still open. Would like to know developments.

  19. Claire Eades 11 August 2014 at 8:47 am permalink

    We managed to trace our installation back to Eon who subcontracted out to Mark Group. We found this info by contacting Nathan Shelley at Ofgem. We had no idea at the time that Eon were behind it as it was sold to us as Govt funded. To be fair Eon have been efficient and always responded when they said etc (unlike MG and CIGA) Eon argue that they don’t hear of many complaints. I did explain that no one knew under CERT that energy companies were behind it.

    MG have agreed to foot the bill for removal and the rest is still under negotiation. We are still in the middle of it. 2.5 years later.

  20. robert thomas 28 August 2014 at 4:13 pm permalink

    I moved into my property in May this year and discovered damp throughout. It was only when the render was taken off that i discovered the cavity wall insulation which was soaking. The Mark Group who installed have been an absolute nightmare to deal with. They took seven weeks to send someone out to assess the problem and i am still waiting for extraction. They have even asked me to pay for the scaffolding to extract which i have refused.
    The only way forward for me would appear to be legal action. Avoid at all costs

  21. Claire Eades 8 September 2014 at 9:46 pm permalink

    Hi all

    Steer clear of retrofit cavity wall insulation. The concept is flawed. I have been dealing with this for four and a half years and only just succeeded in having it removed.

    The term surveyor is used loosely. Many of these jobs are OTE and paid piece meal. Surveyors are paid only when they deem a property suitable AND work takes place. They are sales people and nothing else.

    CIGA is worthless. If you are lucky to get a response then they will tell you that the property is at fault. They will pick on any feature such as a car port or flat roof. Literally anything they can find. The BBA are marginally better but still collude and probably won’t send you the report even if it’s in your favour. It’s a disgrace.

    Ofgem and the DECC, trading standards, Citizen’s Advice all turn a blind eye to this whilst innocent and sometimes elderly and vulnerable people have their lives destroyed.

    CWI can be removed. A word of advice. Avoid any company who installs and removes. Nice double pay day. Avoid any company that tells you it can be removed through the same holes. It can’t!
    Avoid any company that pays piece meal per extraction. Extraction requires a skilled brickwork specialist. Some extraction companies may be a branch of an installation company.

    Mark Group are terrible evidenced by review centre/Mark Group. Listen to You and Yours BBC Radio 4 August 13th 2014 it’s on iplayer. They are referring to the Mark Group

    Be careful!

  22. Carole 17 September 2014 at 9:26 pm permalink

    Hi everyone I how this topic is still open as desperate for some advice and suffering similar issues from cavity wall insulation. Bought a house found out I had a damp problem along lower level in hall . surveyor advised me due to retro cavity wall insulation as house was in area of penetrating wind blowing rain . Finally I I was able to trace the ciga guarantee and name of installers . Year after I bought house managed to get insulation removed by company. Earned to start drying out did readings with a damp reader they dropped . Had rain they increased call insulation company back they looked with camera removed what they missed ! Waited again when it rained readings went up spoke to surveyor as I know render is blown in places . He said can only be something in cavity allowing water to bridge get insulation company back check for insulation in cavity or around wall ties. They did that today with cameras and said cavity is totaly clear not even bricks in it ? I’m pulling my hair out getting someone to check under roof tiles tomorrow as don’t know where to go ? Any ideas could damp readings be increasing on inner walls after rain Cause plaster got damaged ? Is insulation company missing something or my surveyor ? Help has anyone had a similar problem

  23. john 17 October 2014 at 10:51 pm permalink

    just had knaff supafil added to my house, day 1, and it is warmer, no damp problems previously, but I sit in fear reading this thread. just hope I am a lucky one. it would be a first!!

  24. Claire Eades 31 October 2014 at 6:16 pm permalink

    Please feel free to message me directly
    claire.eades@ntlworld.com

  25. E Bell 4 November 2014 at 12:02 pm permalink

    I have been following the comments on Premier Heritage for some time. Moving into our 1930’s semi 7 years ago we have spent that time trying to resolve various damp issues on a gable north facing wall. CWI was fitted prior to our purchase and the house had been empty for a year.

    We had the underfloor ventilation/debris sorted, additional airbricks, wall repointed etc. We had two“reputable” damp companies out who we hoped would help, but just said get a new dpc and insisted nothing to do with cwi! I later contacted an independent specialist (fee charging) but he was reluctant to visit as were a bit of a distance – no RCS indepenpent seems to cover north east area but I do think an independent RICS surveyor, specialising in damp is helpful.
    We had followed all logical paths when the damp patches (which would come and go) developed in a more patterned form -randomly on the wall. Looking outside we thought this correspondeded with our wall ties. At this point I researched more online and this is when I came across Premier Heritage and learnt so much more about CWI issues. I rang CIGA and obtained the warranty and from there we knew that interfering with the bricks and delving into the cavity may affect the CIGA warranty, so we rang the installer to come out.

    The installer (KNW) said immediately that they could see an incorrect drill pattern had been used on installation and it was likely that cold spots had developed. They offered to correct this and reblow the insulation. Whilst I did not argue with this I did not feel it was sufficient. I had been taking photo’s of the damp and showed them the problems we had and asked that they remove some of the bricks to check the cavity. They agreed to do so and found that the cavities were full of debris, up to a metre high in some places. I was pretty shocked that the cavity had obviously been filled with cwi when it had so much debris. The workmen admitted surveys were rarely done or not done properly years ago! The company did spend a few days sorting this, but would not consider the removal of the cwi. They also siliconed my cavity air bricks up, which were unlseeved.

    However, my initial joy that this may now be sorted did not last when I started to think of the years we had spent trying to sort this, along with the money we had wasted on attempting to resolve and the constant redecoration. We later had 2 more damp patches reappear (when the weather was wet) and disappear and we are not sure if this is still linked. The installers finished one month ago and I am allowing some time to see whether this has worked before I take the matter further with them. My experience seems similar to this posting on Premier Heritage : Carole17 September 2014 at 9:26 pm.

    I understand how people feel about this issue, it takes over and you feel that you have no one to turn to for decent advice. The reputable forums are a godsend to people trying to sort this out. Reading the forums I think some people have faired a lot worse than I have and so I should be thankful for that, however people obviously need help as some cannot deal with this on their own!. I will persevere with the installer and continue to follow this forum.

  26. E Bell 4 November 2014 at 3:52 pm permalink

    * sorry I stated RICS – “no RCS indepenpent seems to cover north east area but I do think an independent RICS surveyor, specialising in damp is helpful.”
    I meant to say “no PCA Independent Surveyor seems to cover north east area, but I do think an independent PCA surveyor specialising in damp is helpful.”

  27. Jo Robinson 6 November 2014 at 5:16 pm permalink

    Hi all we have a 1900′s ground floor flat and under the govt initiative had CWI in 2011. We have had mysterious damp patches growing in 3 rooms and have spent hours and many £ trying to resolve this one way or another. Finally we met an independent surveyor who put a camera in our walls where the damp was occuring and discovered that the property was not suitable in the first place due to the amount of rubble in the cavities. In fairness to the company who installed the CWI they were out to our property within 10 days and over the next 2 weeks cleared the debris. They were meant to finish the job tomorrow by refilling CWI so I decided to ask the surveyor to have another look to make sure they had done it correctly. Unfortunately his advice was not to have it filled yet as there was still patchy rubble, breaches of the cavity and large voids where the balls had . In his opinion refilling will just create further damp. I am thinking to ask the company to remove all of the insulation and not have it refilled. Any thoughts?

  28. E Bell 7 November 2014 at 10:34 am permalink

    I think I would consider the removal too. I have had the same experience, but without the guidance of your surveyor. The installers cleared the massive amounts of debris and repumped the wall to fill the voids. I am still experiencing problems and will have to recontact them. Sadly, although they try to help, I really don’t believe they are adequately qualified to understand the damage caused. If you make progress – please repost.


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